YAQUB IBN ISHAQ AL-KINDI (800-873 C.E.)

Abu Yousuf Yaqub Ibn Ishaq al-Kindi was born at Kufa around 800 C.E. His father was an authorized of Haroon al-Rashid. Al-Kindi was a up to date of al-Mamun, al-Mu’tasim and al-Mutawakkil and flourished mostly at Baghdad. He vas formally engaged by Mutawakkil as a calligrapher. On account of his philosophical views, Mutawakkil was antagonise with him and confiscated all his books. These were, although, returned later on. He died in 873 C.E. during the reign of al-M’utamid.

Al-Kindi was a philosopher, mathematician, physicist, astronomer, doctor, geographer and even an expert in music. It is astonishing that he made original assistance to all of these areas. On account of his work he became known as the philosopher of the Arabs.

In numbers, he wrote four publications on the number system and laid the foundation of a large part of up to date arithmetic. No question the Arabic scheme of numbers was mostly developed by al-Khawarizmi, but al-Kindi furthermore made rich contributions to it. He furthermore contributed to spherical geometry to aid him in astronomical investigations.

In chemistry, he are against the idea that groundwork metals can be converted to prized metals. In contrast to current alchemical views, he was emphatic that chemical reactions will not bring about the transformation of components. In physics, he made wealthy assistance to geometrical optics and wrote a publication on it. This publication later on supplied guidance and inspiration to such eminent scientists as Roger Bacon.

In surgery, his head assistance comprises the detail that he was the first to systematically determine the doses to be administered of all the pharmaceuticals renowned at his time. This settled the conflicting views current amidst physicians on the dosage that initiated adversities in composing recipes.

Very little was known on the technical facets of melodies in his time. He pointed out that the diverse remarks that blend to produce harmony, have a specific pitch each. therefore, notes with too low or too high a throw are non-pleasant. The degree of harmony counts on the frequency of notes, etc. He also sharp out the detail that when a sound is produced, it develops swell in the air which hit the ear-drum. His work contains a notation on the conclusion of throw.

He was a prolific author: the total number of books written by him was 241, the famous among which were split up as pursues:

Astronomy 16, Arithmetic 11, Geometry 32, surgery 22,
Physics 12, Philosophy 22, Logic 9, Psychology 5, ar,d melodies 7.

In supplement, diverse monographs in writing by him concern surges, astronomical instruments, rocks, prized pebbles, etc. He was furthermore an early translator of Greek works into Arabic, but this fact has largely been over-shadowed by his many original writings. It is unfortunate that most of his publications are no longer extant, but those living talk very high of his benchmark of scholarship and assistance. He was renowned as Alkindus in Latin and a large number of his publications were converted into Latin by Gherard of Cremona. His publications that were converted into Latin throughout the Middle Ages comprise Risalah dar Tanjim, Ikhtiyarat al-Ayyam, Ilahyat-e-Aristu, al-Mosiqa, Mad-o-Jazr, and Aduiyah Murakkaba.

Al-Kindi’s influence on development of science and beliefs was significant in the renewal of sciences in that time span. In the Middle Ages, Cardano considered him as one of the twelve utmost minds. His works, in fact, lead to further development of diverse topics for centuries, especially physics, numbers, surgery and music.

Kratka pojašnjenja : "Islam je sastavljen od pet stvari: šehadeta i svjedočenja da nema drugog boga osim Allaha – la ilahe illalah, i da je Muhammed Allahov Poslanik – Muhammedun Resulullah, od klanjanja namaza, davanja zekata, obavljanja hadždža i posta mjeseca ramazana!". Klanjanje namaza, Namaz - molitva Allahu dž.š. Zekjat - 2.5% od imovine koja se ne koristi (zlato, novac, nekretnine) koju svaki Musliman izdvaja godišnje za pomoć siromašnima. Hadždž - vjerski obred koji vrši onaj ko može najmanje jednom u životu. Post - proces čuvanja tijela od grijeha, vode i hrane tokom mjeseca Ramazana. Ramazan - mjesec u Islamskom kalendaru u kome je početo objavljivanje Kur'an-a. Islamski kalendar se mjeri Mjesečevom-Lunarnom godinom. Hadis- predanje koje se prenosi od poslanika Muhameda s.a.w.s. Buhari, Muslim dva najpoznatija verodostojna sakupljača i objavljivača Hadisa. Za više pročitajte : šta je islam