MOHAMMAD IBN ZAKARIYA AL-RAZI (864-930 C.E.)

Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (864-930 C.E.) was born at Ray, Iran. primarily, he was interested in melodies but later on he discovered surgery, mathematics, astronomy, chemistry and philosophy from a student of Hunayn Ibn Ishaq, who was well versed in the very old Greek, Persian and Indian schemes of surgery and other topics. He furthermore studied under Ali Ibn Rabban. The functional know-how profited at the well-known Muqtadari Hospital assisted him in his chosen occupation of surgery. At an early age he gained eminence as an expert in medicine and alchemy, so that patients and scholars flocked to him from distant components of Asia.

He was first placed in-charge of the first regal clinic at Ray, from where he soon moved to a alike place in Baghdad where he remained the head of its famous Muqtadari clinic for along time. He moved from time to time to various towns, specially between Ray and Baghdad, but eventually returned to Ray, where he past away round 930 C.E. His title is commemorated in the Razi organisation near Tehran.

Razi was a Hakim, an alchemist and a philosopher. In surgery, his assistance was so significant that it can only be contrasted to that of Ibn Sina. Some of his works in surgery e.g. Kitab al- Mansoori, Al-Hawi, Kitab al-Mulooki and Kitab al-Judari wa al- Hasabah acquired everlasting good reputation. Kitab al-Mansoori, which was converted into Latin in the 15th years C.E., comprised ten volumes and dealt exhaustively with Greco-Arab surgery. Some of its volumes were published individually in Europe. His al-Judari wal Hasabah was the first treatise on smallpox and chicken-pox, and is largely founded on Razi’s initial assistance: It was translated into diverse European languages. Through this treatise he became the first to draw clear assessments between smallpox and chicken-pox. Al-Hawi was the largest medical encyclopedia composed by then. It comprised on each medical subject all significant information that was available from Greek and Arab causes, and this was concluded by him by giving his own comments founded on his experience and outlooks. A special characteristic of his health system was that he greatly favored therapy through correct and regulated nourishment. This was combined with his emphasis on the influence of psychological components on health. He also endeavoured proposed remedies first on animals in order to assess in their consequences and edge consequences. He was also an professional surgeon and was the first to use opium for anesthesia.

In supplement to being a physician, he compounded medicines and, in his subsequent years, provided himself over to experimental and theoretical sciences. It appears possible that he developed his chemistry individually of Jabir Ibn Hayyan. He has portrayed in large minutia several chemical reactions and furthermore granted full descriptions of and concepts for about twenty devices used in chemical enquiries. His description of chemical information is in plain and reasonable dialect. One of his publications called Kitab-al-Asrar deals with the preparation of chemical components and their utilization. Another one was converted into Latin under the title Liber Experi- mentorum, He went after his predecessors in splitting up substances into plants, animals and minerals, therefore in a way unfastening the way for inorganic and organic chemistry. By and large, this classification of the three kingdoms still retains. As a chemist, he was the first to produce sulfuric unpleasant simultaneously with some other acids, and he furthermore arranged alcoholic beverage by fermenting sweet goods.

His assistance as a philosopher is furthermore well known. The rudimentary elements in his philosophical system are the creator, spirit, issue, space and time. He talks about their characteristics in minutia and his concepts of space and time as constituting a continuum are spectacular. His philosophical outlooks were, however, criticized by a number of other Muslim scholars of the era.

He was a prolific scribe, who has left monumental treatises on many subjects. He has more than 200 outstanding technical contributions to his credit, out of which about half deal with medicine and 21 anxiety alchemy. He also composed on physics, mathematics, astronomy and optics, but these writings could not be preserved. A number of his publications, encompassing Jami-fi-al-Tib, Mansoori, al-Hawi, Kitab al-Jadari wa al-Hasabah, al-Malooki, Maqalah fi al- Hasat fi Kuli wa al-Mathana, Kitab al-Qalb, Kitab al-Mafasil, Kitab-al- ‘Ilaj al-Ghoraba, Bar al-Sa’ah, and al-Taqseem wa al-Takhsir, have been released in diverse European languages. About 40 of his manuscripts are still extant in the repositories and libraries of Iran, Paris, Britain, Rampur, and Bankipur. His assistance has substantially leveraged the development of research, in general, and surgery, in particular.

Kratka pojašnjenja : "Islam je sastavljen od pet stvari: šehadeta i svjedočenja da nema drugog boga osim Allaha – la ilahe illalah, i da je Muhammed Allahov Poslanik – Muhammedun Resulullah, od klanjanja namaza, davanja zekata, obavljanja hadždža i posta mjeseca ramazana!". Klanjanje namaza, Namaz - molitva Allahu dž.š. Zekjat - 2.5% od imovine koja se ne koristi (zlato, novac, nekretnine) koju svaki Musliman izdvaja godišnje za pomoć siromašnima. Hadždž - vjerski obred koji vrši onaj ko može najmanje jednom u životu. Post - proces čuvanja tijela od grijeha, vode i hrane tokom mjeseca Ramazana. Ramazan - mjesec u Islamskom kalendaru u kome je početo objavljivanje Kur'an-a. Islamski kalendar se mjeri Mjesečevom-Lunarnom godinom. Hadis- predanje koje se prenosi od poslanika Muhameda s.a.w.s. Buhari, Muslim dva najpoznatija verodostojna sakupljača i objavljivača Hadisa. Za više pročitajte : šta je islam