IBN RUSHD (1128-1198 C.E.)

Abu’l Waleed Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Rushd, known as Averros in the West, was born in 1128 C.E. in Cordova, where his father and grandfather had both been judges. His grandfather was well versed in Fiqh (Maliki School) and was also the Imam of the Jamia Mosque of Cordova. The juvenile Ibn Rushd obtained his education in Cordova and dwelled a quiet life, dedicating most of his time to learned-pursuits. He researched beliefs and regulation from Abu J’afar Haroon and from Ibn Baja; he also studied surgery.

Al-Hakam, the well known Umayyad Caliph of Spain, had assembled a magnificent library in Cordova, which housed 500,000 publications, He himself had studied numerous of these and made short marginal comments on them. This rich assemblage prepared the foundation for intellectual study in Spain and supplied the backdrop for men like Ibn Rushd, who dwelled 2 centuries subsequent.

Abu Yaqub, the Caliph of Morocco, called him to his capital and nominated him as his physician in location of Ibn Tufail. His son Yaqub al-Mansur kept him for some time but shortly Ibn Rushd’s views on theology and beliefs drew the Caliph’s wrath. All his books, barring firmly technical ones, were scorched and he was banished to Lucena. although, as a outcome of intervention of some premier scholars he was pardoned after about four years and recalled to Morocco in 1198; but he past away towards the end of the identical year.

Ibn Rushd made amazing contributions. in beliefs, logic, surgery, music and jurisprudence. In medicine his well- renowned publication Kitab al-Kulyat fi al-Tibb was in writing before 1162 C.E. Its Latin translation was renowned as ‘Colliget’. In it, Ibn Rushd has hurled lightweight on diverse aspects of surgery, encompassing the identifies, cure and prevention of infections. The book concentrates on specific localities in evaluation of Ibn Sina’s broader scope of al-Qanun, but comprises some original facts of Ibn Rushd.

In beliefs, his most significant work Tuhafut al-Tuhafut was in writing in answer to Al-Ghazali’s work. Ibn Rushd was criticized by numerous Muslim scholars for this book, which, nevertheless, had a deep leverage on European considered, at smallest until the starting of modern beliefs and untested research. His outlooks on destiny were that man is neither in full command of his destiny neither is it fully predetermined for him. He composed three commentaries on the works of Aristotle, as these were known then through Arabic translations. The shortest Jami may be advised as a summary of the subject. The intermediate was Talkhis and the longest was the Tafsir. These three commentaries would seem to correspond to distinct stages in the learning of students; the short one was intended for the beginners, then the intermediate for the scholars well known with the subject, and eventually the longest one for advanced investigations. The longest commentary was, in detail, an initial assistance as it was mostly founded on his investigation including understanding of Qu’ranic notions.

In the field of melodies, Ibn Rushd composed a commentary on Aristotle’s publication De Anima. This publication was converted into Latin by Mitchell the Scott.

In astronomy he composed a treatise on the motion of the sphere, Kitab fi-Harakat al-Falak. He furthermore summarized Almagest and split up it into two components: description of the spheres, and movement of the spheres. This summary of the Almagest was converted from Arabic into Hebrew by Jacob Anatoli in 1231.

According to Ibn al-Abbar, Ibn Rushd’s writings spread over 20,000 sheets, the most famous of which deal with beliefs, surgery and jurisprudence. On surgery solely he wrote 20 publications. Regarding jurisprudence, his publication Bidayat al-Mujtahid wa-Nihayat- al-Muqtasid has been held by Ibn Jafar Thahabi as possibly the best publication on the Maliki School of Fiqh. Ibn Rushd’s writings were translated into diverse dialects, encompassing Latin, English, German and Hebrew. Most of his commentaries on beliefs are preserved in the Hebrew translations, or in Latin translations from the Hebrew, and a few in the initial Arabic, usually in Hebrew script. This discloses his broader acceptance in the West in comparison to the East. The commentary on zoology is solely lost. Ibn Rushd furthermore composed commentaries on Plato’s Republic, Galen’s treatise on fevers, Al-Farabi’s reasoning, etc. Eighty-seven of his books are still extant.

Ibn Rushd has been held as one of the greatest thinkers and researchers of the 12th century. According to Philip Hitti, Ibn Rushd leveraged Western thought from the 12th to the 16th centuries. His books were included in the syllabi of Paris and other universities till the advent of modern untested sciences.

Kratka pojašnjenja : "Islam je sastavljen od pet stvari: šehadeta i svjedočenja da nema drugog boga osim Allaha – la ilahe illalah, i da je Muhammed Allahov Poslanik – Muhammedun Resulullah, od klanjanja namaza, davanja zekata, obavljanja hadždža i posta mjeseca ramazana!". Klanjanje namaza, Namaz - molitva Allahu dž.š. Zekjat - 2.5% od imovine koja se ne koristi (zlato, novac, nekretnine) koju svaki Musliman izdvaja godišnje za pomoć siromašnima. Hadždž - vjerski obred koji vrši onaj ko može najmanje jednom u životu. Post - proces čuvanja tijela od grijeha, vode i hrane tokom mjeseca Ramazana. Ramazan - mjesec u Islamskom kalendaru u kome je početo objavljivanje Kur'an-a. Islamski kalendar se mjeri Mjesečevom-Lunarnom godinom. Hadis- predanje koje se prenosi od poslanika Muhameda s.a.w.s. Buhari, Muslim dva najpoznatija verodostojna sakupljača i objavljivača Hadisa. Za više pročitajte : šta je islam