IBN AL-BAITAR (DIED 1248 C.E.)

Abu Muhammad Abdallah Ibn Ahmad Ibn al-Baitar Dhiya al-Din al-Malaqi was one of the greatest researchers of Muslim Spain and was the utmost botanist and pharmacist of the Middle Ages. He was born in the Spanish city of Malaqa (Malaga) towards the end of the 12th century. He wise botany from Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati, a learned botanist, with who he begun assembling plants in and around Spain. In 1219 he left Spain on a plant-collecting expedition and journeyed along the to the north coast of Africa as far as Asia secondary. The accurate modes of his travel (whether by land or sea) are not renowned, but the foremost stations he travelled to include Bugia, Qastantunia (Constantinople), Tunis, Tripoli, Barqa and Adalia. After 1224 he went into the service of al-Kamil, the Egyptian Gover- nor, and was nominated head herbalist. In 1227 al-Kamil expanded his domination to Damaseus, and Ibn al-Baitar escorted him there which supplied him an opening to assemble plants in Syria His researches on plants expanded over a huge locality: including Arabia and Palestine, which he either travelled to or organised to collect plants from stations established there. He past away in Damascus in 1248.

Ibn Baitar’s major assistance, Kitab al-Jami fi al-Adwiya al- Mufrada, is one of the utmost botanical compilations dealing with medicinal plants in Arabic. It relished a high status amidst botanists up to the 16th years and is a methodical work that embodies previous works, with due condemnation, and adds a large part of original contribution. The encyclopedia comprises some 1,400 different pieces, mostly medicinal plants and vegetables, of which about 200 plants were not known previous. The publication mentions to the work of some 150 authors mostly Arabic, and it furthermore extracts about 20 early Greek researchers. It was translated into Latin and released in 1758.

His second monumental treatise Kitab al-Mlughni fi al-Adwiya al-Mufrada is an encyclopedia of surgery. The pharmaceuticals are recorded in accordance with their therapeutical worth. Thus, its 20 distinct chapters deal with the plants bearing significance to infections of head, ear, eye, etc. On surgical issues he has often cited the well known Muslim surgeon, Abul Qasim Zahrawi. in addition to Arabic, Baitar has given Greek and Latin names of the plants, therefore facilitating move of information.

Ibn Baitar’s contributions are distinuished by observation, investigation and classification and have exerted a profound leverage on to the east as well as Western botany and medicine. Though the Jami was translated/published late in the western dialects as cited overhead, yet many scientists had earlier investigated diverse parts of the publication and made some references to it.

Kratka pojašnjenja : "Islam je sastavljen od pet stvari: šehadeta i svjedočenja da nema drugog boga osim Allaha – la ilahe illalah, i da je Muhammed Allahov Poslanik – Muhammedun Resulullah, od klanjanja namaza, davanja zekata, obavljanja hadždža i posta mjeseca ramazana!". Klanjanje namaza, Namaz - molitva Allahu dž.š. Zekjat - 2.5% od imovine koja se ne koristi (zlato, novac, nekretnine) koju svaki Musliman izdvaja godišnje za pomoć siromašnima. Hadždž - vjerski obred koji vrši onaj ko može najmanje jednom u životu. Post - proces čuvanja tijela od grijeha, vode i hrane tokom mjeseca Ramazana. Ramazan - mjesec u Islamskom kalendaru u kome je početo objavljivanje Kur'an-a. Islamski kalendar se mjeri Mjesečevom-Lunarnom godinom. Hadis- predanje koje se prenosi od poslanika Muhameda s.a.w.s. Buhari, Muslim dva najpoznatija verodostojna sakupljača i objavljivača Hadisa. Za više pročitajte : šta je islam