‘Muslim Scientists and Thinkers’

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  • (700 – 1400 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013
    Name Years (C.E.) Description
    Jabir Ibn Haiyan (Geber) Died 803 Chemistry (Father of Chemistry)
    Musa al-Khawarizmi (Algorizm) 770 – 840 Mathematics, Astronomy, Geography (Algorithm, Algebra, Calculus)
    Yaqub Ibn Ishaq al-Kindi (Alkindus) 800 – 873 Philosophy, Physics, Optics, Medicine, Mathematics, Metallurgy
    Thabit Ibn Qurra (Thebit) 836 -901 Astronomy, Mechanics, Geometry, Anatomy
    Ali Ibn Rabban al-Tabari 838 – 870 Medicine, Mathematics, Calligraphy, Literature
    Al-Farghani (Al-Fraganus) 860 Astronomy, Civil Engineering
    Zakariya al-Razi (Rhazes) 864 – 930 Medicine, Ophthalmology, Smallpox, Chemistry, Astronomy
    Abu Abdullah al-Battani (Albategnius) 868 – 929 Astronomy, Mathematics, Trigonometry
    Abu al-Nasr al-Farabi (Al-Pharabius) 870 – 950 Sociology, Logic, Philosophy, Political Science, Music
    Abul Hasan Ali al-Masu’di Died 957 Geography, History
    Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Albucasis) 936 – 1013 Surgery, Medicine (Father of Modern Surgery)
    Muhammad al-Buzjani 940 – 997 Mathematics, Astronomy, Geometry, Trigonometry
    Hasan Ibn al-Haitham (Alhazen) 965 – 1040 Physics, Optics, Mathematics
    Abu al-Hasan al-Mawardi (Alboacen) 972 – 1058 Political Science, Sociology, Jurisprudence, Ethics
    Abu Raihan al-Biruni 973 – 1048 Astronomy, Mathematics (Determined Earth’s Circumference)
    Ibn Sina (Avicenna) 980 – 1037 Medicine, Philosophy, Mathematics, Astronomy
    Omar al-Khayyam 1044 – 1123 Mathematics, Poetry
    Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (Algazel) 1058 – 1128 Sociology, Theology, Philosophy
    Al-Idrisi (Dreses) 1099 – 1166 Geography (World Map, First Globe)
    Ibn Rushd (Averroes) 1128 – 1198 Philosophy, Law, Medicine, Astronomy, Theology
    Ibn al-Baitar Died 1248 Pharmacy, Botany
    Jalal al-Din Rumi 1207 – 1273 Sociology
    Ibn al-Nafis 1213 – 1288 Anatomy
    Ibn Khaldun 1332 – 1395 Sociology, Philosophy of History, Political Science

    IBN KHALDUN (1332–1395. C.E. )

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abd al-Rahman Ibn Mohammad is generally known as Ibn Khaldun after a isolated ancestor. His parents, initially Yemenite Arabs, had resolved in Spain, but after the drop of Seville, had migrated to Tunisia. He was born in Tunisia in 1332 C.E., where he obtained his early education and where, still in his teens, he went into the service of the Egyptian leader Sultan Barquq. His desire for sophisticated know- ledge and a better academic setting shortly made him depart this service and migrate to Fez. This was followed by a long time span of unrest assessed by up to date political rivalries influencing his career. This turbulent period furthermore encompassed a three year refuge in a little town Qalat Ibn Salama in Algeria, which supplied him with the opening to write Muqaddimah, the first capacity of his world annals that won him an immortal location amidst historians, sociologists and philosophers. The doubt of his vocation still proceeded, with Egypt evolving his final abode where he spent his last 24 years. Here he dwelled a life of good reputation and esteem, assessed by his designation as the head Malakite Judge and addressing at the Al-Azhar University, but envy caused his exclusion from his high judicial office as numerous as five times. Continue reading “IBN KHALDUN (1332–1395. C.E. )” »

    IBN AL-NAFIS (1213-1288 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Ala-al-Din Abu al-Hasan Ali Ibn Abi al-Hazm al-Qarshi al- Damashqi al-Misri was born in 607 C.E. of Damascus. He was educated at the Medical College-cum-Hospital founded by Nur al- Din Zangi. In surgery his teacher was Muhaththab al-Din Abd al- Rahim. Apart from surgery, Ibn al-Nafis discovered jurisprudence, literature and theology. He therefore became a renowned expert on Shafi’i School of Jurisprudence as well as a reputed doctor. Continue reading “IBN AL-NAFIS (1213-1288 C.E.)” »

    JALAL AL-DIN RUMI (1207-1273 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Jalal al-Din Mohammad Ibn Mohammad Ibn Mohammad Ibn Husain al-Rumi was born in 604 A.H. (1207/8 C.E.) at Balkh (now Afghanistan). His dad Baha al-Din was a renowned devout scholar. Under his patronage, Rumi obtained his early education from Syed Burhan-al-Din. When his age was about 18 years, the family (after some migrations) finally resolved at Konya and at the age of 25, Rumi was dispatched to Aleppo for advanced education and subsequent to Damascus. Rumi proceeded with his education till he was 40 years vintage, whereas on his father’s death Rumi succeeded him as a professor in the famous Madrasah at Konya at the age of about 24 years. He obtained his mystical teaching first at the hands of Syed Burhan al-Din and later he was taught by Shams al-Din Tabriz. He became famous for his mystical insight, his devout information and as a Persian bard. He used to teach a large number of students at his Madrasah and furthermore founded the famous Maulvi Order in Tasawwuf. He died in 672 A.H. (1273 C.E.) at Konya, which subsequently became a sacred location for promenading derveshes of the Maulvi alignment. Continue reading “JALAL AL-DIN RUMI (1207-1273 C.E.)” »

    IBN AL-BAITAR (DIED 1248 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu Muhammad Abdallah Ibn Ahmad Ibn al-Baitar Dhiya al-Din al-Malaqi was one of the greatest researchers of Muslim Spain and was the utmost botanist and pharmacist of the Middle Ages. He was born in the Spanish city of Malaqa (Malaga) towards the end of the 12th century. He wise botany from Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati, a learned botanist, with who he begun assembling plants in and around Spain. In 1219 he left Spain on a plant-collecting expedition and journeyed along the to the north coast of Africa as far as Asia secondary. The accurate modes of his travel (whether by land or sea) are not renowned, but the foremost stations he travelled to include Bugia, Qastantunia (Constantinople), Tunis, Tripoli, Barqa and Adalia. After 1224 he went into the service of al-Kamil, the Egyptian Gover- nor, and was nominated head herbalist. In 1227 al-Kamil expanded his domination to Damaseus, and Ibn al-Baitar escorted him there which supplied him an opening to assemble plants in Syria His researches on plants expanded over a huge locality: including Arabia and Palestine, which he either travelled to or organised to collect plants from stations established there. He past away in Damascus in 1248. Continue reading “IBN AL-BAITAR (DIED 1248 C.E.)” »

    IBN RUSHD (1128-1198 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu’l Waleed Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Rushd, known as Averros in the West, was born in 1128 C.E. in Cordova, where his father and grandfather had both been judges. His grandfather was well versed in Fiqh (Maliki School) and was also the Imam of the Jamia Mosque of Cordova. The juvenile Ibn Rushd obtained his education in Cordova and dwelled a quiet life, dedicating most of his time to learned-pursuits. He researched beliefs and regulation from Abu J’afar Haroon and from Ibn Baja; he also studied surgery. Continue reading “IBN RUSHD (1128-1198 C.E.)” »

    AL-IDRISI (1099-1166 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu Abdallah Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Abdallah Ibn Idris al-Qurtubi al-Hasani, was born in Ceuta, Spain, in 1099 C.E. He was educated in Cordova. subsequent he traveled far and wide in attachment with his studies and then flourished at the Norman court in Palermo. The designated day of his death is contentious, being either 1166 or 1180 C.E. Continue reading “AL-IDRISI (1099-1166 C.E.)” »

    ABU HAMID AL-GHAZALI (1058-1128 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu Hamid Ibn Muhammad Ibn Muhammad al-Tusi al-Shafi’i al-Ghazali was born in 1058 C.E. in Khorasan, Iran. His dad died while he was still very young but he had the opening of getting learning in the common curriculum at Nishapur and Baghdad. Soon he came by a high benchmark of scholarship in belief and philosophy and was honored by his appointment as a Professor at the Nizamiyah University of Baghdad, which was recognized as one of the most reputed organisations of discovering in the golden era of Muslim annals. Continue reading “ABU HAMID AL-GHAZALI (1058-1128 C.E.)” »

    OMAR AL-KHAYYAM (1044-1123 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Ghiyath al-Din Abul Fateh Omar Ibn Ibrahim al-Khayyam was born at Nishapur, the provincial capital of Khurasan round 1044 C.E. (c. 1038 to 1048). Persian mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, doctor and poet, he is commonly renowned as Omar Khayyam. Khayyam means the tent-maker, and whereas usually advised as Persian, it has furthermore been proposed that he could have belonged to the Khayyami tribe of Arab source who might have resolved in Persia. Little is known about his early life, except for the detail that he was educated at Nishapur and lived there and at Samarqand for most of his life. He was a up to date of Nidham al-Mulk Tusi. opposing to the available possibilities, he did not like to be engaged at the King’s court and led a calm life dedicated to seek for information. He traveled to the large centers of discovering, Samarqand, Bukhara, Balkh and Isphahan in order to study farther and exchange outlooks with the scholars there. While at Samarqand he was patronized by a dignitary, Abu Tahir. He past away at Nishapur in 1123-24. Continue reading “OMAR AL-KHAYYAM (1044-1123 C.E.)” »

    IBN SINA (980-1037 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu Ali al-Hussain Ibn Abdallah Ibn Sina was born in 980 C.E. at Afshana beside Bukhara. The juvenile Bu Ali received his early education in Bukhara, and by the age of ten had become well versed in the study of the Qur’an and diverse sciences. He begun revising beliefs by reading various Greek, Muslim and other publications on this subject and learnt reasoning and some other subjects from Abu Abdallah Natili, a famous philosopher of the time. While still young, he attained such a degree of know-how in surgery that his renown disperse far and broad. At the age of 17, he was fortunate in curing Nooh Ibn Mansoor, the monarch of Bukhhara, of an sickness in which all the well-known physicians had granted up wish. On his recovery, the monarch desired to pay him, but the juvenile doctor only yearned consent to use his uniquely supplied library. Continue reading “IBN SINA (980-1037 C.E.)” »

    ABU RAIHAN AL-BIRUNI (973–1048 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu Raihan Mohammad Ibn Ahmad al-Biruni was one of the well-known numbers associated with the court of King Mahmood Ghaznawi, who was one of the well known Muslim kings of the 11th years C.E. Al-Biruni was a versatile scholar and scientist who had identical facility in physics, metaphysics, numbers, geography and annals. Born in the town of Kheva near “Ural” in 973 C.E., he was a up to date of the well-known physician Ibn Sina. At an early age, the good reputation of his scholarship went round and when Sultan Mahmood Ghaznawi conquered his homeland, he took al-Biruni along with him in his journeys to India several times and thus he had the opportunity to journey all over India during a period of 20 years. He discovered Hindu philosophy, numbers, geography and belief from the Pundits to who he educated Greek and Arabic science and beliefs. He past away in 1048 C.E. at the age of 75, after having spent 40 years in therefore gathering knowledge and making his own initial assistance to it. Continue reading “ABU RAIHAN AL-BIRUNI (973–1048 C.E.)” »

    ABU AL-HASAN AL-MAWARDI (972-1058 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu al-Hasan Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Habib al-Mawardi was born at Basrah in 972 C.E. He was educated at-first in Basrah where, after culmination of his rudimentary education, he learned Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) from the jurist Abu al-Wahid al-Simari. He then went to Baghdad for sophisticated studies under Sheikh Abd al-Hamid and Abdallah al-Baqi. His skill in jurisprudence Ethics, Political science and publications verified useful in protecting a reputable career for him. After his primary designation as Qadi (Judge), he was gradually encouraged to higher agencies, till he became the head Justice at Baghdad. The Abbasid Caliph al-Qaim bi Amr Allah nominated him as his roving ambassador and dispatched him to a number of nations as the head of special missions. In this capability he played a key role in setting up agreeable relatives between the declining Abbasid Caliphate and the increasing forces of Buwahids and Seljukes. He was favored with wealthy gifts and tributes by most Sultans of the time. He was still in Baghdad when it was taken over by Buwahids. Continue reading “ABU AL-HASAN AL-MAWARDI (972-1058 C.E.)” »


    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu Ali Hasan Ibn al-Haitham was one of the most eminent physicists, whose contributions to optics and the scientific methods are spectacular. renowned in the West as Alhazen, Ibn al-Haitham was born in 965 C.E. in Basrah, and was educated in Basrah and Baghdad. then, he went to Egypt, where he was asked to find ways of commanding the flood of the Nile. Being failed in this, he pretended madness until the death of Caliph al-Hakim. He furthermore traveled to Spain and, throughout this time span, he had ample time for his scientific pursuits, which encompassed optics, mathematics, physics, surgery and development of technical procedures on each of which he has left some spectacular books. Continue reading “ABU ALI HASAN IBN AL-HAITHAM (965-1040 C.E.)” »


    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abul Wafa Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Yahya Ibn Ismail al-Buzjani was born in Buzjan, Nishapur in 940 C.E. He flourished as a large mathematician and astronomer at Baghdad and died in 997/998 C.E. He learnt numbers in Baghdad. In 959 C.E. he migrated to Iraq and dwelled there till his death.

    Abul Wafa’s major assistance lies in some parts of mathematics, especially geometry and trigonometry. In geometry his assistance comprises solution of geometrical problems with unfastening of the compass; construction of a square matching to other squares; normal polyhedra; construction of normal hectagon taking for its edge half the edge of the equilateral triangle inscribed in the identical around; buildings of parabola by points and geometri- cal answer of the formulas:

    x4 = a and x4 + ax3 = b

    Abul Wafa’s contribution to the development of trigonometry was extensive. He was the first to display the generality of the sine theorem relative to spherical triangles. He developed a new procedure of constructing sine tables, the worth of sin 30′ being correct to the eighth decimal location. He furthermore evolved relations for sine (a+b) and the formula:

    2 sin2 (a/2) = 1 – cos a , and
    sin a = 2 sin (a/2) cos (a/2)

    In supplement, he made a special study of the tangent and calculated a table of tangents. He presented the secant and cosecant for the first time, knew the relatives between the trigonometric lines, which are now used to characterise them, and undertook comprehensive investigations on conics.

    Apart from being a mathematician, Abul Wafa furthermore assisted to astronomy. In this area he discussed distinct movements of the moon, and discovered ‘variation’. He was furthermore one of the last Arabic translators and commentators of Greek works.

    He composed a large number of publications on mathematics and other subjects, most of which have been lost or live in changed types. His contribution encompasses Kitab ‘Ilm al-Hisab, a functional book of arithmetic, al-Kitab al-Kamil (the Complete Book), Kitab al-Handsa (Applied Geometry). Apart from this, he composed rich commentaries on Euclid, Diophantos and al-Khawarizmi, but all of these have been lost. His publications now extant include Kitab ‘Ilm al-Hisab, Kitab al- Handsa and Kitab al-Kamil.

    His astronomical information on the movements of the moon has been admonished in that, in the case of variety’ the third inequality of the moon as he considered was the second part of the ‘evection’. But, according to Sedat, what he discovered was the identical that was found out by Tycho Brache six centuries later. Nonetheless, his assistance to trigonometry was extremely important in that he evolved the knowledge on the tangent and presented the secant and cosecant for the first time; in detail a sizeable part of today’s trigonometry can be traced back to him.

    ABU AL-QASIM AL-ZAHRAWI (936-1013 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abul Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi (known in the west as Abulcasis) was born in 936 C.E. in Zahra in the district of Cordova. He became one of the most renowned surgeons of the Muslim era and was doctor to monarch Al-Hakam-II of Spain. After a long health vocation, rich with significant original contribution, he past away in 1013 C.E. Continue reading “ABU AL-QASIM AL-ZAHRAWI (936-1013 C.E.)” »


    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abul Hasan Ali Ibn Husain Ibn Ali Al-Masu’di was a relative of Abdallah Ibn Masu’d, a friendly of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him). A master geographer, a physicist and student of history, Masu’di was conceived in the final decade of the 9th century A.d., his accurate date of life commencement being unfamiliar. He was a Mutazilite Arab, who investigated inaccessible grounds and passed on at Cairo, in 957 C.e. Continue reading “ABUL HASAN ALI AL-MASU’DI (DIED 957 C.E.)” »

    ABU AL-NASR AL-FARABI (870-950 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu Nasr Mohammad Ibn al-Farakh al-Farabi was born in a little town Wasij, beside Farab in Turkistan in 259 A.H. (870 C.E.). His parents were originally of Persian descent, but his ancestors had migrated to Turkistan. renowned as al-Phrarabius in Europe, Farabi was the child of a general. He completed his earlier education at Farab and Bukhara but, subsequent on, he went to Baghdad for higher studies, where he studied and worked for a long time viz., from 901 C.E. to 942 C.E. throughout this time span he acquired mastery over some dialects as well as various parts of information and expertise. He dwelled through the reign of six Abbasid Caliphs. As a philosopher and scientist, he came by large skill in diverse parts of discovering and is reported to have been an professional in distinct dialects. Continue reading “ABU AL-NASR AL-FARABI (870-950 C.E.)” »


    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu Abdallah Muhammad Ibn Jabir Ibn Sinan al-Battani al-Harrani was born round 858 C.E. in Harran, and according to one account, in Battan, a State of Harran. Battani was first educated by his father Jabir Ibn San’an al-Battani, who was also a well-known researcher. He then moved to Raqqa, situated on the bank of the Euphrates, where he obtained advanced learning and subsequent on flourished as a scholar. At the beginning of the 9th century, he migrated to Samarra, where he worked till the end of his life in 929 C.E. He was of Sabian source, but was himself a Muslim. Continue reading “ABU ABDULLAH AL-BATTANI (868–929 C.E.)” »


    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (864-930 C.E.) was born at Ray, Iran. primarily, he was interested in melodies but later on he discovered surgery, mathematics, astronomy, chemistry and philosophy from a student of Hunayn Ibn Ishaq, who was well versed in the very old Greek, Persian and Indian schemes of surgery and other topics. He furthermore studied under Ali Ibn Rabban. The functional know-how profited at the well-known Muqtadari Hospital assisted him in his chosen occupation of surgery. At an early age he gained eminence as an expert in medicine and alchemy, so that patients and scholars flocked to him from distant components of Asia. Continue reading “MOHAMMAD IBN ZAKARIYA AL-RAZI (864-930 C.E.)” »

    AL-FARGHANI (C. 860)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu’l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Kathir al-Farghani, born in Farghana, Transoxiana, was one of the most distinguished astronomers in the service of al-Mamun and his successors. He wrote “Elements of Astronomy” (Kitab fi al-Harakat al-Samawiya wa Jawami Ilm al-Nujum i.e. the publication on celestial motion and thorough science of the stars), which was converted into Latin in the 12th century and used large leverage upon European astronomy before Regiomontanus. He acknowledged Ptolemy’s idea and value of the precession, but thought that it influenced not only the stars but furthermore the planets. He very resolute the diameter of the soil to be 6,500 miles, and. discovered the utmost distances and furthermore the diameters of the satellites. Continue reading “AL-FARGHANI (C. 860)” »


    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    This carried out Hakim was the tutor of the unparalleled physician Zakariya al-Razi. Luck highly rated the disciple more than the teacher in terms of celebrity. As contrasted to Razi persons know very little about his teacher Ali.

    Ali Bin Rabban’s last name was Abu al-Hasan, the full title being Abu al-Hasan Ali Bin Sahl Rabban al-Tabari. Born in 838 C.E. his father Sahl hailed from a respectable Jew family. The nobility and sympathy inherent in his very nature soon endeared him to his countrymen so much so that they used to call him Rabban which suggests “my leader”. Continue reading “ALI IBN RABBAN AL-TABARI (838-870 C.E.)” »

    THABIT IBN QURRA (836-901 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Thabit Ibn Qurra Ibn Marwan al-Sabi al-Harrani was born in the year 836 C.E. at Harran (present Turkey). As the title indicates he was basically a constituent of the Sabian sect, but the large Muslim mathematician Muhammad Ibn Musa Ibn Shakir, impressed by his information of dialects, and appreciating his promise for a technical vocation, chosen him to connect the technical group at Baghdad that was being patronised by the Abbasid Caliphs. There, he investigated under the well known Banu Musa male siblings. It was in this setting that Thabit assisted to some parts of research, especially numbers, astronomy and mechanics, in supplement to translating a large number of works from Greek to Arabic. Later, he was patronised by the Abbasid Caliph al-M’utadid. After a long career of scholarship, Thabit past away at Baghdad in 901 C.E. Continue reading “THABIT IBN QURRA (836-901 C.E.)” »


    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu Yousuf Yaqub Ibn Ishaq al-Kindi was born at Kufa around 800 C.E. His father was an authorized of Haroon al-Rashid. Al-Kindi was a up to date of al-Mamun, al-Mu’tasim and al-Mutawakkil and flourished mostly at Baghdad. He vas formally engaged by Mutawakkil as a calligrapher. On account of his philosophical views, Mutawakkil was antagonise with him and confiscated all his books. These were, although, returned later on. He died in 873 C.E. during the reign of al-M’utamid. Continue reading “YAQUB IBN ISHAQ AL-KINDI (800-873 C.E.)” »


    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu Abdullah Mohammad Ibn Musa al-Khawarizmi was born at Khawarizm (Kheva), south of Aral sea. Very little is renowned about his early life, except for the detail that his parents had migrated to a location south of Baghdad. The exact designated days of his birth and death are furthermore not known, but it is established that he flourished under Al- Mamun at Baghdad through 813-833 and likely past away round 840 C.E. Continue reading “MOHAMMAD BIN MUSA AL-KHAWARIZMI (770 — 840 C.E.)” »

    JABIR IBN HAIYAN (Died 803 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    abir Ibn Haiyan, the alchemist Geber of the Middie Ages, is usually renowned as the dad of chemistry. Abu Musa Jabir Ibn Hayyan, occasionally called al-Harrani and al-Sufi, was the son of the druggist (Attar). The accurate designated day of his birth is the subject of some consideration, but it is established that he practiced medicine and alchemy in Kufa around 776 C.E. He is reported to have investigated under Imam Ja’far Sadiq and the Ummayed prince Khalid Ibn Yazid. In his early days, he performed surgery and was under the patronage of the Barmaki Vizir during the Abbssid Caliphate of Haroon al-Rashid. He distributed some of the effects of the downfall of the Barmakis and was put under dwelling arrest in Kufa, where he past away in 803 C.E. Continue reading “JABIR IBN HAIYAN (Died 803 C.E.)” »