• Spisak tekstova unutar ove kategorije
      (Bez podkategorija)
  • Podkategorije
  • Weird Science

    Sunday, October 9th, 2022

    Science has acquired a new meaning in certain Muslim circles. When classical Muslim scholars declared that “whosoever does not know astronomy or anatomy is deficient in the knowledge of God”, they were emphasising the importance of the scientific spirit in Islam and encouraging the pursuit of empirical science. But today, to a significant section of Muslims, science includes the discovery of “scientific miracles” in the Quran.

    The Quran does contain many verses that point towards nature, and constantly asks its readers to reflect on the wonders of the cosmos. “Travel throughout the earth and see how He brings life into being” (29:20) is a piece of advice we frequently find in the Muslim sacred text. “Behold,” we read elsewhere, “in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the alternation of night and day, there are indeed signs for men of understanding . . .” (3:190).

    But these verses do not have any specific scientific content – they simply urge believers to study nature and reflect on the awe-inspiring diversity and complexity of the universe. The emphasis in many of these verses, such as “The sun and the moon follow courses (exactly) computed; and the stars and the trees both prostrate in adoration; and the heavens He has raised high, and He has set up the balance” (55:5-7), is on the general predictability of physical phenomena.

    It requires considerable mental gymnastics and distortions to find scientific facts or theories in these verses. Yet, this height of folly is a global craze in Muslim societies, as is a popular literature known as ijaz, or “scientific miracles of the Quran”. Islamic bookshops are littered with this literature, television preachers talk endlessly about how many different scientific theories can be found in the Quran, and numerous websites are devoted to explaining the phenomenon. It can seem as if ijaz literature has taken total control of the Muslim imagination.

    “Almost everything, from relativity, quantum mechanics, Big Bang theory, black holes and pulsars, genetics, embryology, modern geology, thermodynamics, even the laser and hydrogen fuel cells, have been ‘found’ in the Quran,” says Nidhal Guessoum, professor of astrophysics at the American University of Sharjah. Whereas centuries ago, Muslim mathematicians discovered algebra (and led the world in countless fields of knowledge), some of today’s believers look to the Quran for equations to yield the value of the speed of light or the age of the universe, and other bewildering feats.

    The tendency to read science in the Quran has a long history. In the 1950s, for example, when the US and the Soviet Union were competing to put a man in space, pamphlets appeared in India and Pakistan in which Quranic verses on the all-powerful nature of God were quoted to “prove” that manned space flight would never happen. However, for the current manifestation of ijaz, we need to thank not writers from the madrasas of the Middle East, but two western professors – neither man a Muslim.

    It began in 1976, with the publication of The Bible, the Quran and Science by Maurice Bucaille, a French surgeon who had served the Saudi monarchy and acquired his basic knowledge of the Quran in the kingdom. He set out to examine “the holy scriptures in the light of modern knowledge”, focusing on astronomy, the earth, and the animal and vegetable kingdoms. His conclusion was that “it is impossible not to admit the existence of scientific errors in the Bible”. In contrast: “The Quran most definitely did not contain a single proposition at variance with the most firmly established modern knowledge.” Many Muslims embraced Bucaille’s thesis as proof of the divine origins of the Quran.

    Ijaz literature received a further boost almost a decade later with the publication of the paper Highlights of Human Embryology in the Quran and the Hadith by Keith Moore, a Canadian professor of anatomy who was then teaching in Saudi Arabia. Moore illustrated certain verses from the Quran with clinical drawings and textbook descriptions. For example, the verse “We created man from a drop of mingled fluid” (76:2) is explained by Moore as referring to the mixture of a small quantity of sperm with the oocyte and its follicular fluid.

    He was quite a performer, and stunned the gathering at the seventh Saudi Medical Meeting, held in 1982 in Dam mam. He read out the Quranic verses: “We have created man from the essence of clay, then We placed him as a drop of fluid in a safe place, then We made that drop into a clinging form, and made the form into a lump of flesh, and We made the lump into bones, and We clothed these bones with flesh, and We made him into other forms . . .” (23:12-14).

    Moore then shaped some Plasticine to resemble an embryo at 28 days and dug his teeth into it. The chewed Plasticine, he claimed, was an exact copy of the embryo, with his teeth marks resembling the embryo’s somites (the vertebral column and musculature). He displayed photographs to show that bones begin to form in the embryo at six weeks, and muscles attach to them. By the seventh week, the bones give a human shape to the embryo; ears and eyes begin to form by the fourth week and are visible by the sixth. All these developments, Moore claimed, fit the Quranic description exactly.

    Both Bucaille and Moore played on the inferiority complex of influential Saudis, suggesting that the Quran was a scientific treatise and proof that Muslims were modern long before the modern world and modern science. The Saudi government poured millions into ijaz literature. The Commission on Scientific Signs in the Quran and Sunnah was established. The first international conference on the subject was held in Islamabad, in 1987. Moore’s paper was included in an illustrated study: Human Development As Described in the Quran and Sunnah. The field has been growing exponentially ever since.

    Guessoum, who is about to publish a book on ijaz literature, says that most works on scientific miracles follow a set pattern. They start with a verse of the Quran and look for concordance between scientific results and Quranic statements. For example, one would start from the verse “So verily I swear by the stars that run and hide . . .” (81:15-16) and quickly declare that it refers to black holes, or take the verse “[I swear by] the Moon in her fullness; that ye shall journey on from stage to stage” (84:18-19) and decide it refers to space travel. And so on. “What is meant to be allegorical and poetic is transformed into products of science,” Guessoum says.

    These days, the biggest propagator of ijaz literature is Harun Yahya (real name Adnan Oktar), a Turkish creationist. He has published scores of pamphlets and books that are heavily subsidised and sold very cheaply. The latest, Miracles of the Quran, explains the verses of the Quran “in such a way as to leave no room for doubt or question marks”. The author suggests that the verse “We have sent down iron in which there lies great force and which has many uses for mankind” (57:25) is a “significant scientific miracle”, because “modern astronomical findings have disclosed that iron found in our world has come from the giant stars in outer space”. The verse “Glory be to Him Who created all the pair of things that the earth produces” (36:36) is claimed to predict anti-matter.

    But these inanities are not limited to crackpots. “Even respected university professors believe this nonsense,” Guessoum says. “In my own university, around 70 per cent of science professors subscribe to the view that the Quran is full of scientific content, facts as well as theories.” Indeed, many respected scientists have contributed to the literature. Prime among these is The Geological Concepts of Mountains in the Quran (1991). Written by the Egyptian scientist Zaghloul el-Naggar, who held the chair of geology at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, the book has gone through numerous editions. It was so successful that el-Naggar gave up teaching to become the chair of the Committee of Scientific Notions in the Glorious Quran, established by the Supreme Council of Islamic Affairs in Cairo. Today, he lectures on “geology in the Quran” and CDs of his talks sell out.

    The latest tome on the subject is The Computer Universe: a Scientific Rendering of the Holy Quran by P A Wahid, the former dean of the Faculty of Agriculture at Kerala Agricultural University. In the book, he develops a model of science in the Quran and purports to explain the existence of angels (“intelligent robots in Allah’s kingdom”), the Divine Master Plan, and how the Quran predicted the advent of chemistry and biology. Ehsan Masood, who writes on science in developing countries for Nature, recounts how he “once met a former chief scientist to a defence ministry who told me excitedly he was refining a research paper that would use mathematics to prove the existence of angels”.

    All their own creation

    The underlying message of these books is that all the science you need is in the Quran – no need to get your hands dirty in a lab or work within mainstream theories. But there is an overt message, too: works such as those of Wahid and el-Naggar are aggressively anti-evolution. Many more Muslim scientists, says Guessoum, are “scientists by day and creationists by night”.

    Creationism is not at all a natural Muslim position. In the early 10th century, Muhammad al-Nakhshabi wrote in The Book of the Yield: “While man has sprung from sentient creatures, these have sprung from plants, and these in turn from combined substances.” In Life of Hai by the 12th-century Andalusian philosopher ibn Tufayl, evolution is strongly emphasised. Hai is “spontaneously generated”, emerges from the slime, evolves through various stages and discovers the power of reason to shape his world and to understand the universe. In contrast, creationism has taken hold over the past decade in Muslim societies – Turkey, for example, came last, just behind the US, in a recent survey of 34 countries on public acceptance of evolution.

    Ijaz literature goes hand in hand with creationism, though Masood says that Muslim creationists are strongly influenced by their American Christian counterparts: “The two groups genuinely believe that the destiny of Islam and Christianity is to work together to defeat evolution and that this alliance is the answer to the clash of civilisations.”

    Yahya’s lavishly illustrated tome Atlas of Creation is widely distributed. In Turkey, it anonymously turned up in numerous schools and libraries. Last year, it was sent unsolicited to schools across France, prompting the education ministry to proscribe the volume. The Atlas blames everything, from Nazism to terrorism, on evolution. “It contains lie upon lie upon lie,” says Jean Staune, visiting lecturer in philosophy of sciences at the HEC School of Management in Paris, who has made a special study of Harun Yahya’s works. “It denigrates the faith which it purports to support.”

    And we can say the same about all literature, popular or academic, that purports to discover “scientific miracles” in the Quran.

    By Ziauddin Sardar, published in NewStatesman, August 21st 2008.

    Inventor of the algorithms

    Tuesday, October 27th, 2020

    Al-Khwarizmi was a Persian mathematician who spent most of his life in Baghdad. He lived during the reign of Caliph al-Ma’mum of the Abbasid caliphate.

    Al-Khwarizmi is considered the ‘father of algebra’. In 825 AD, Al-Khwarizmi wrote his first book in Arabic to explain the Hindu system. It was titled Al-Khwarizmi on the Hindu Art of Calculating. The book introduced the use of the Hindu numerals 1-9, the number zero, and the place value system still in use today.

    Around 830 AD he wrote another important book on algebra, Kitab al-mukhtasar fi hisab al-jabr wa’l-muqabaa (The Compendious Book in Calculation by Completion and Balancing) became the starting point of algebra in the Islamic world and it also gave its title to serve the western name for the subject.

    It was the first book on the systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations and is sometimes referred to by the shortened title Algebra. The book regarded as the foundation and cornerstone of mathematics.

    The origin of the word ‘Algorithm’

    The word “algorithm” itself is quite interesting; at first glance, it may look as though someone intended to write “logarithm” but jumbled up the first four letters. The word did not appear in Webster’s New World Dictionary as late as 1957; we find only the older form “algorism” with its ancient meaning, i.e., the process of doing arithmetic using Arabic numerals. In the middle ages, abacists computed on the abacus and algorists computed by algorism. Following the middle ages, the origin of this word was in doubt, and early linguists attempted to guess at its derivation by making combinations like algiros [painful] + arithmos [number]; others said no, the word comes from “King Algor of Castile.” Finally, historians of mathematics found the true origin of the word algorism: it comes from the name of a famous Persian textbook author, Abu Ja’far Mohammed ibn Mûsâ al’Khowârizmî (c. 825)-literally, “Father of Ja’far, Mohhamed, son of Moses, a native of Khowârizm.” Khowârizm is today the small Soviet city of Khiva. Al’Khowârizmî wrote the celebrated book Kitab al jabr w’al’muqabala (“Rules of restoration and reduction”); another word, “algebra,” stems from the title of his book, although the book wasn’t really very algebraic.

    Gradually the form and meaning of “algorism” became corrupted; as explained by the Oxford English Dictionary, the word was “erroneously refashioned” by “learned confusion” with the word arithmetic. The change from “algorism” to “algorithm” is not hard to understand in view of the fact that people had forgotten the original derivation of the word. An early German mathematical dictionary, Vollstandiges Mathematisches Lexicon (Leipzig, 1747), gives the following definition for the word Algorithmus: “Under this designation are combined the notions of the four types of arithmetic calculations, namely addition, multiplication, subtraction, and division.” The Latin phrase algorithms infinitesimals was at that time used to denote “ways of calculation with infinitely small quantities, as invented by Leibnitz.”

    Al-Khwarizmi emphasized that he wrote his algebra book to serve the practical needs of the people concerning matters of inheritance, legacies, partition, lawsuits, and commerce.

    Abu Abdullah Mohammad Ibn Musa al’Khowârizmî was a mathematician, astronomer, and geographer. He was perhaps one of the greatest mathematicians who ever lived, as, in fact, he was the founder of several branches and basic concepts of mathematics. He influenced mathematical thought to a greater extent than any other medieval writer. His work on algebra was outstanding, as he not only initiated the subject in a systematic form but he also developed it to the extent of giving analytical solutions of linear and quadratic equations, which established him as the founder of Algebra. The very name Algebra has been derived from his famous book Al’Jabr wa’al’Muqabilah. His arithmetic synthesized Greek and Hindu knowledge and also contained his own contribution of fundamental importance to mathematics and science.

    He treated (probably for the first time) the handling of the elementary arithmetic operations with respect to the Hindu-Arabic decimal numerals. About 750 A.D., the Hindu principles of decimal arithmetic were brought to Persia, as several important works were translated into Arabic. Not long after this, al’Khowârizmî wrote his Arabic textbook on the subject. His work was a strong influence on Leonardo Pisano (Fibonacci), whose book on arithmetic (1202 A.D.) played a major role in the spreading of Hindu-Arabic numerals into Europe.

    The importance of Khowârizmî’s works was recognized in the twelfth century by the West, when Adelard de Bath (who has been called the first English scientist, 1080 – 1160), Gerard of Cremona (Italy, 1117 – 1187) and others translated his works into Latin where it was used by the Western scholars as to the principal mathematical textbook at European universities until the 16th century.

    Al-Khwarizmi worked most of his life in the Baghdad House of Wisdom (Bayt al-Hikma), a library, translation institute, and place of learning that was a major intellectual center of the Islamic Golden Age.

    His full name is Abu Abdallah Muhammad ibn Musa Al-Khwarizmi. The last-mentioned name (his nisba) refers to his birthplace, Khwarizm, modern Khiva, south of the Aral Sea. He was born around 780 in the town of Kath part of Khwarizm. Kath is now buried in the sand. He died around 850. He was summoned to Baghdad by Caliph Al-Ma’mun and appointed court astronomer. From the title of his work, Hisab Al-Jabr wal Muqabalah (Book of Calculations, Restoration and Reduction), Algebra (Al-Jabr) derived its name.

    Al-Khwarizmi emphasized that he wrote his algebra book to serve the practical needs of the people concerning the matters of inheritance, legacies, partition, lawsuits and commerce. He considered his work as worship to God.

    Al Khwarizmi’s identity and the quadratic formula

    Al Khwarizmi is often considered the father of algebra, due to an influential text he wrote, and his name is the origin of the term algorithm. His `completing-the-square’ technique lies at the heart of a beautiful formula that we call al Khwarizmi’s identity. The usual quadratic formula is a consequence.

    here we will show you how:
    – will see how the completing-the-square leads to al Khwarizmi’s identity
    – how the quadratic formula follows from al Khwarizmi’s identity
    – use the quadratic formula to factor quadratic polynomials.

    This step is probably the algebraic highlight of the course and the most detailed steps. On this page is a very important derivation. Make sure you proceed slowly and carefully, please check all the steps by writing things out line by line, and then apply your understanding to work out the answers to the questions. This is how we learn mathematics.
    Solving a quadratic equation using completing the square

    Suppose we want to solve the quadratic equation

    Half of the coefficient of x is −7, so we take the 1887 to the other side, and add the square of −7

    to both sides. This gives

    Now we rewrite the left-hand side as a perfect square:

    At this stage we have to “take the square root” of 1936
    . What does this mean? It means finding a number with the property that 2=1936. In this case, such a number actually exists: it is =44. But otherwise, we would just write ±√1936

    to represent an approximate square root and it’s negative. We can’t forget about the negative, since we want two solutions!

    So in our case x−7=44 or −7=−44. Thus we do get two solutions, namely =51 or =−37.

    more at https://www.futurelearn.com/courses/maths-linear-quadratic-relations/0/steps/117435

    Some other Contributions

    Improvements in Sundials

    Sundial is an instrument that shows time with the help of the position of the Sun. The sun forms a shadow of the pointer on a plate which contains marks of the time period. The shadow of the pointer rotates on the marks when the sun changes its position. Al-Khwarizmi improved the design of sundials and made them a universal instrument for checking the time in any part of the world.

    Map Development

    Al-Khwarizmi developed an accurate map of that time with the help of 70 geographers.

    – The Soviet Union issued a stamp in 1983 on which an image of Al-Khwarizmi was engraved.
    – The Amir Kabir University of Tehran in Iran has placed the statue of Al-Khwarizmi.
    – Al-Khwarizmi became the head of Dar-ul-Hikmat (House of Wisdom) at the time of Muslim Caliph Mamun.



    Zakir Naik Oxford debate

    Friday, July 24th, 2015

    Doctor Zakir Abdul-Karim Naik was born on October 18, 1965 in Mumbai, India, where he completed his primary and secondary education, and general medicine and sur- gery at the University of Mumbai. Although he completed his medical studies, he became one of the most popular international lecturer on the subject of Islam and comparative religion. Every person who attends part of his lectures when he attended ask questions, you will be surprised and amazed at his skill presentation of opinions and eliminate misconceptions and misunderstandings regarding Islam, citing the Koran by heart and authentic hadiths. For each quoted verse or hadith quotes and number. (more…)

    How Islamic inventors changed the world

    Saturday, September 27th, 2014

    The story goes that an Arab named Khalid was tending his goats in the Kaffa region of southern Ethiopia, when he noticed his animals became livelier after eating a certain berry. He boiled the berries to make the first coffee. Certainly the first record of the drink is of beans exported from Ethiopia to Yemen where Sufis drank it to stay awake all night to pray on special occasions. By the late 15th century it had arrived in Mecca and Turkey from where it made its way to Venice in 1645. It was brought to England in 1650 by a Turk named Pasqua Rosee who opened the first coffee house in Lombard Street in the City of London. The Arabic qahwa became the Turkish kahve then the Italian caffé and then English coffee. (more…)

    (700 – 1400 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013
    Name Years (C.E.) Description
    Jabir Ibn Haiyan (Geber) Died 803 Chemistry (Father of Chemistry)
    Musa al-Khawarizmi (Algorizm) 770 – 840 Mathematics, Astronomy, Geography (Algorithm, Algebra, Calculus)
    Yaqub Ibn Ishaq al-Kindi (Alkindus) 800 – 873 Philosophy, Physics, Optics, Medicine, Mathematics, Metallurgy
    Thabit Ibn Qurra (Thebit) 836 -901 Astronomy, Mechanics, Geometry, Anatomy
    Ali Ibn Rabban al-Tabari 838 – 870 Medicine, Mathematics, Calligraphy, Literature
    Al-Farghani (Al-Fraganus) 860 Astronomy, Civil Engineering
    Zakariya al-Razi (Rhazes) 864 – 930 Medicine, Ophthalmology, Smallpox, Chemistry, Astronomy
    Abu Abdullah al-Battani (Albategnius) 868 – 929 Astronomy, Mathematics, Trigonometry
    Abu al-Nasr al-Farabi (Al-Pharabius) 870 – 950 Sociology, Logic, Philosophy, Political Science, Music
    Abul Hasan Ali al-Masu’di Died 957 Geography, History
    Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Albucasis) 936 – 1013 Surgery, Medicine (Father of Modern Surgery)
    Muhammad al-Buzjani 940 – 997 Mathematics, Astronomy, Geometry, Trigonometry
    Hasan Ibn al-Haitham (Alhazen) 965 – 1040 Physics, Optics, Mathematics
    Abu al-Hasan al-Mawardi (Alboacen) 972 – 1058 Political Science, Sociology, Jurisprudence, Ethics
    Abu Raihan al-Biruni 973 – 1048 Astronomy, Mathematics (Determined Earth’s Circumference)
    Ibn Sina (Avicenna) 980 – 1037 Medicine, Philosophy, Mathematics, Astronomy
    Omar al-Khayyam 1044 – 1123 Mathematics, Poetry
    Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (Algazel) 1058 – 1128 Sociology, Theology, Philosophy
    Al-Idrisi (Dreses) 1099 – 1166 Geography (World Map, First Globe)
    Ibn Rushd (Averroes) 1128 – 1198 Philosophy, Law, Medicine, Astronomy, Theology
    Ibn al-Baitar Died 1248 Pharmacy, Botany
    Jalal al-Din Rumi 1207 – 1273 Sociology
    Ibn al-Nafis 1213 – 1288 Anatomy
    Ibn Khaldun 1332 – 1395 Sociology, Philosophy of History, Political Science

    IBN KHALDUN (1332–1395. C.E. )

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abd al-Rahman Ibn Mohammad is generally known as Ibn Khaldun after a isolated ancestor. His parents, initially Yemenite Arabs, had resolved in Spain, but after the drop of Seville, had migrated to Tunisia. He was born in Tunisia in 1332 C.E., where he obtained his early education and where, still in his teens, he went into the service of the Egyptian leader Sultan Barquq. His desire for sophisticated know- ledge and a better academic setting shortly made him depart this service and migrate to Fez. This was followed by a long time span of unrest assessed by up to date political rivalries influencing his career. This turbulent period furthermore encompassed a three year refuge in a little town Qalat Ibn Salama in Algeria, which supplied him with the opening to write Muqaddimah, the first capacity of his world annals that won him an immortal location amidst historians, sociologists and philosophers. The doubt of his vocation still proceeded, with Egypt evolving his final abode where he spent his last 24 years. Here he dwelled a life of good reputation and esteem, assessed by his designation as the head Malakite Judge and addressing at the Al-Azhar University, but envy caused his exclusion from his high judicial office as numerous as five times. (more…)

    IBN AL-NAFIS (1213-1288 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Ala-al-Din Abu al-Hasan Ali Ibn Abi al-Hazm al-Qarshi al- Damashqi al-Misri was born in 607 C.E. of Damascus. He was educated at the Medical College-cum-Hospital founded by Nur al- Din Zangi. In surgery his teacher was Muhaththab al-Din Abd al- Rahim. Apart from surgery, Ibn al-Nafis discovered jurisprudence, literature and theology. He therefore became a renowned expert on Shafi’i School of Jurisprudence as well as a reputed doctor. (more…)

    JALAL AL-DIN RUMI (1207-1273 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Jalal al-Din Mohammad Ibn Mohammad Ibn Mohammad Ibn Husain al-Rumi was born in 604 A.H. (1207/8 C.E.) at Balkh (now Afghanistan). His dad Baha al-Din was a renowned devout scholar. Under his patronage, Rumi obtained his early education from Syed Burhan-al-Din. When his age was about 18 years, the family (after some migrations) finally resolved at Konya and at the age of 25, Rumi was dispatched to Aleppo for advanced education and subsequent to Damascus. Rumi proceeded with his education till he was 40 years vintage, whereas on his father’s death Rumi succeeded him as a professor in the famous Madrasah at Konya at the age of about 24 years. He obtained his mystical teaching first at the hands of Syed Burhan al-Din and later he was taught by Shams al-Din Tabriz. He became famous for his mystical insight, his devout information and as a Persian bard. He used to teach a large number of students at his Madrasah and furthermore founded the famous Maulvi Order in Tasawwuf. He died in 672 A.H. (1273 C.E.) at Konya, which subsequently became a sacred location for promenading derveshes of the Maulvi alignment. (more…)

    IBN AL-BAITAR (DIED 1248 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu Muhammad Abdallah Ibn Ahmad Ibn al-Baitar Dhiya al-Din al-Malaqi was one of the greatest researchers of Muslim Spain and was the utmost botanist and pharmacist of the Middle Ages. He was born in the Spanish city of Malaqa (Malaga) towards the end of the 12th century. He wise botany from Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati, a learned botanist, with who he begun assembling plants in and around Spain. In 1219 he left Spain on a plant-collecting expedition and journeyed along the to the north coast of Africa as far as Asia secondary. The accurate modes of his travel (whether by land or sea) are not renowned, but the foremost stations he travelled to include Bugia, Qastantunia (Constantinople), Tunis, Tripoli, Barqa and Adalia. After 1224 he went into the service of al-Kamil, the Egyptian Gover- nor, and was nominated head herbalist. In 1227 al-Kamil expanded his domination to Damaseus, and Ibn al-Baitar escorted him there which supplied him an opening to assemble plants in Syria His researches on plants expanded over a huge locality: including Arabia and Palestine, which he either travelled to or organised to collect plants from stations established there. He past away in Damascus in 1248. (more…)

    IBN RUSHD (1128-1198 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu’l Waleed Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Rushd, known as Averros in the West, was born in 1128 C.E. in Cordova, where his father and grandfather had both been judges. His grandfather was well versed in Fiqh (Maliki School) and was also the Imam of the Jamia Mosque of Cordova. The juvenile Ibn Rushd obtained his education in Cordova and dwelled a quiet life, dedicating most of his time to learned-pursuits. He researched beliefs and regulation from Abu J’afar Haroon and from Ibn Baja; he also studied surgery. (more…)

    AL-IDRISI (1099-1166 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu Abdallah Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Abdallah Ibn Idris al-Qurtubi al-Hasani, was born in Ceuta, Spain, in 1099 C.E. He was educated in Cordova. subsequent he traveled far and wide in attachment with his studies and then flourished at the Norman court in Palermo. The designated day of his death is contentious, being either 1166 or 1180 C.E. (more…)

    ABU HAMID AL-GHAZALI (1058-1128 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu Hamid Ibn Muhammad Ibn Muhammad al-Tusi al-Shafi’i al-Ghazali was born in 1058 C.E. in Khorasan, Iran. His dad died while he was still very young but he had the opening of getting learning in the common curriculum at Nishapur and Baghdad. Soon he came by a high benchmark of scholarship in belief and philosophy and was honored by his appointment as a Professor at the Nizamiyah University of Baghdad, which was recognized as one of the most reputed organisations of discovering in the golden era of Muslim annals. (more…)

    OMAR AL-KHAYYAM (1044-1123 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Ghiyath al-Din Abul Fateh Omar Ibn Ibrahim al-Khayyam was born at Nishapur, the provincial capital of Khurasan round 1044 C.E. (c. 1038 to 1048). Persian mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, doctor and poet, he is commonly renowned as Omar Khayyam. Khayyam means the tent-maker, and whereas usually advised as Persian, it has furthermore been proposed that he could have belonged to the Khayyami tribe of Arab source who might have resolved in Persia. Little is known about his early life, except for the detail that he was educated at Nishapur and lived there and at Samarqand for most of his life. He was a up to date of Nidham al-Mulk Tusi. opposing to the available possibilities, he did not like to be engaged at the King’s court and led a calm life dedicated to seek for information. He traveled to the large centers of discovering, Samarqand, Bukhara, Balkh and Isphahan in order to study farther and exchange outlooks with the scholars there. While at Samarqand he was patronized by a dignitary, Abu Tahir. He past away at Nishapur in 1123-24. (more…)

    IBN SINA (980-1037 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu Ali al-Hussain Ibn Abdallah Ibn Sina was born in 980 C.E. at Afshana beside Bukhara. The juvenile Bu Ali received his early education in Bukhara, and by the age of ten had become well versed in the study of the Qur’an and diverse sciences. He begun revising beliefs by reading various Greek, Muslim and other publications on this subject and learnt reasoning and some other subjects from Abu Abdallah Natili, a famous philosopher of the time. While still young, he attained such a degree of know-how in surgery that his renown disperse far and broad. At the age of 17, he was fortunate in curing Nooh Ibn Mansoor, the monarch of Bukhhara, of an sickness in which all the well-known physicians had granted up wish. On his recovery, the monarch desired to pay him, but the juvenile doctor only yearned consent to use his uniquely supplied library. (more…)

    ABU RAIHAN AL-BIRUNI (973–1048 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu Raihan Mohammad Ibn Ahmad al-Biruni was one of the well-known numbers associated with the court of King Mahmood Ghaznawi, who was one of the well known Muslim kings of the 11th years C.E. Al-Biruni was a versatile scholar and scientist who had identical facility in physics, metaphysics, numbers, geography and annals. Born in the town of Kheva near “Ural” in 973 C.E., he was a up to date of the well-known physician Ibn Sina. At an early age, the good reputation of his scholarship went round and when Sultan Mahmood Ghaznawi conquered his homeland, he took al-Biruni along with him in his journeys to India several times and thus he had the opportunity to journey all over India during a period of 20 years. He discovered Hindu philosophy, numbers, geography and belief from the Pundits to who he educated Greek and Arabic science and beliefs. He past away in 1048 C.E. at the age of 75, after having spent 40 years in therefore gathering knowledge and making his own initial assistance to it. (more…)

    ABU AL-HASAN AL-MAWARDI (972-1058 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu al-Hasan Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Habib al-Mawardi was born at Basrah in 972 C.E. He was educated at-first in Basrah where, after culmination of his rudimentary education, he learned Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) from the jurist Abu al-Wahid al-Simari. He then went to Baghdad for sophisticated studies under Sheikh Abd al-Hamid and Abdallah al-Baqi. His skill in jurisprudence Ethics, Political science and publications verified useful in protecting a reputable career for him. After his primary designation as Qadi (Judge), he was gradually encouraged to higher agencies, till he became the head Justice at Baghdad. The Abbasid Caliph al-Qaim bi Amr Allah nominated him as his roving ambassador and dispatched him to a number of nations as the head of special missions. In this capability he played a key role in setting up agreeable relatives between the declining Abbasid Caliphate and the increasing forces of Buwahids and Seljukes. He was favored with wealthy gifts and tributes by most Sultans of the time. He was still in Baghdad when it was taken over by Buwahids. (more…)


    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu Ali Hasan Ibn al-Haitham was one of the most eminent physicists, whose contributions to optics and the scientific methods are spectacular. renowned in the West as Alhazen, Ibn al-Haitham was born in 965 C.E. in Basrah, and was educated in Basrah and Baghdad. then, he went to Egypt, where he was asked to find ways of commanding the flood of the Nile. Being failed in this, he pretended madness until the death of Caliph al-Hakim. He furthermore traveled to Spain and, throughout this time span, he had ample time for his scientific pursuits, which encompassed optics, mathematics, physics, surgery and development of technical procedures on each of which he has left some spectacular books. (more…)


    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abul Wafa Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Yahya Ibn Ismail al-Buzjani was born in Buzjan, Nishapur in 940 C.E. He flourished as a large mathematician and astronomer at Baghdad and died in 997/998 C.E. He learnt numbers in Baghdad. In 959 C.E. he migrated to Iraq and dwelled there till his death.

    Abul Wafa’s major assistance lies in some parts of mathematics, especially geometry and trigonometry. In geometry his assistance comprises solution of geometrical problems with unfastening of the compass; construction of a square matching to other squares; normal polyhedra; construction of normal hectagon taking for its edge half the edge of the equilateral triangle inscribed in the identical around; buildings of parabola by points and geometri- cal answer of the formulas:

    x4 = a and x4 + ax3 = b

    Abul Wafa’s contribution to the development of trigonometry was extensive. He was the first to display the generality of the sine theorem relative to spherical triangles. He developed a new procedure of constructing sine tables, the worth of sin 30′ being correct to the eighth decimal location. He furthermore evolved relations for sine (a+b) and the formula:

    2 sin2 (a/2) = 1 – cos a , and
    sin a = 2 sin (a/2) cos (a/2)

    In supplement, he made a special study of the tangent and calculated a table of tangents. He presented the secant and cosecant for the first time, knew the relatives between the trigonometric lines, which are now used to characterise them, and undertook comprehensive investigations on conics.

    Apart from being a mathematician, Abul Wafa furthermore assisted to astronomy. In this area he discussed distinct movements of the moon, and discovered ‘variation’. He was furthermore one of the last Arabic translators and commentators of Greek works.

    He composed a large number of publications on mathematics and other subjects, most of which have been lost or live in changed types. His contribution encompasses Kitab ‘Ilm al-Hisab, a functional book of arithmetic, al-Kitab al-Kamil (the Complete Book), Kitab al-Handsa (Applied Geometry). Apart from this, he composed rich commentaries on Euclid, Diophantos and al-Khawarizmi, but all of these have been lost. His publications now extant include Kitab ‘Ilm al-Hisab, Kitab al- Handsa and Kitab al-Kamil.

    His astronomical information on the movements of the moon has been admonished in that, in the case of variety’ the third inequality of the moon as he considered was the second part of the ‘evection’. But, according to Sedat, what he discovered was the identical that was found out by Tycho Brache six centuries later. Nonetheless, his assistance to trigonometry was extremely important in that he evolved the knowledge on the tangent and presented the secant and cosecant for the first time; in detail a sizeable part of today’s trigonometry can be traced back to him.

    ABU AL-QASIM AL-ZAHRAWI (936-1013 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abul Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas al-Zahrawi (known in the west as Abulcasis) was born in 936 C.E. in Zahra in the district of Cordova. He became one of the most renowned surgeons of the Muslim era and was doctor to monarch Al-Hakam-II of Spain. After a long health vocation, rich with significant original contribution, he past away in 1013 C.E. (more…)


    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abul Hasan Ali Ibn Husain Ibn Ali Al-Masu’di was a relative of Abdallah Ibn Masu’d, a friendly of the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him). A master geographer, a physicist and student of history, Masu’di was conceived in the final decade of the 9th century A.d., his accurate date of life commencement being unfamiliar. He was a Mutazilite Arab, who investigated inaccessible grounds and passed on at Cairo, in 957 C.e. (more…)

    ABU AL-NASR AL-FARABI (870-950 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu Nasr Mohammad Ibn al-Farakh al-Farabi was born in a little town Wasij, beside Farab in Turkistan in 259 A.H. (870 C.E.). His parents were originally of Persian descent, but his ancestors had migrated to Turkistan. renowned as al-Phrarabius in Europe, Farabi was the child of a general. He completed his earlier education at Farab and Bukhara but, subsequent on, he went to Baghdad for higher studies, where he studied and worked for a long time viz., from 901 C.E. to 942 C.E. throughout this time span he acquired mastery over some dialects as well as various parts of information and expertise. He dwelled through the reign of six Abbasid Caliphs. As a philosopher and scientist, he came by large skill in diverse parts of discovering and is reported to have been an professional in distinct dialects. (more…)


    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu Abdallah Muhammad Ibn Jabir Ibn Sinan al-Battani al-Harrani was born round 858 C.E. in Harran, and according to one account, in Battan, a State of Harran. Battani was first educated by his father Jabir Ibn San’an al-Battani, who was also a well-known researcher. He then moved to Raqqa, situated on the bank of the Euphrates, where he obtained advanced learning and subsequent on flourished as a scholar. At the beginning of the 9th century, he migrated to Samarra, where he worked till the end of his life in 929 C.E. He was of Sabian source, but was himself a Muslim. (more…)


    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu Bakr Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (864-930 C.E.) was born at Ray, Iran. primarily, he was interested in melodies but later on he discovered surgery, mathematics, astronomy, chemistry and philosophy from a student of Hunayn Ibn Ishaq, who was well versed in the very old Greek, Persian and Indian schemes of surgery and other topics. He furthermore studied under Ali Ibn Rabban. The functional know-how profited at the well-known Muqtadari Hospital assisted him in his chosen occupation of surgery. At an early age he gained eminence as an expert in medicine and alchemy, so that patients and scholars flocked to him from distant components of Asia. (more…)

    AL-FARGHANI (C. 860)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu’l-Abbas Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Kathir al-Farghani, born in Farghana, Transoxiana, was one of the most distinguished astronomers in the service of al-Mamun and his successors. He wrote “Elements of Astronomy” (Kitab fi al-Harakat al-Samawiya wa Jawami Ilm al-Nujum i.e. the publication on celestial motion and thorough science of the stars), which was converted into Latin in the 12th century and used large leverage upon European astronomy before Regiomontanus. He acknowledged Ptolemy’s idea and value of the precession, but thought that it influenced not only the stars but furthermore the planets. He very resolute the diameter of the soil to be 6,500 miles, and. discovered the utmost distances and furthermore the diameters of the satellites. (more…)


    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    This carried out Hakim was the tutor of the unparalleled physician Zakariya al-Razi. Luck highly rated the disciple more than the teacher in terms of celebrity. As contrasted to Razi persons know very little about his teacher Ali.

    Ali Bin Rabban’s last name was Abu al-Hasan, the full title being Abu al-Hasan Ali Bin Sahl Rabban al-Tabari. Born in 838 C.E. his father Sahl hailed from a respectable Jew family. The nobility and sympathy inherent in his very nature soon endeared him to his countrymen so much so that they used to call him Rabban which suggests “my leader”. (more…)

    THABIT IBN QURRA (836-901 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Thabit Ibn Qurra Ibn Marwan al-Sabi al-Harrani was born in the year 836 C.E. at Harran (present Turkey). As the title indicates he was basically a constituent of the Sabian sect, but the large Muslim mathematician Muhammad Ibn Musa Ibn Shakir, impressed by his information of dialects, and appreciating his promise for a technical vocation, chosen him to connect the technical group at Baghdad that was being patronised by the Abbasid Caliphs. There, he investigated under the well known Banu Musa male siblings. It was in this setting that Thabit assisted to some parts of research, especially numbers, astronomy and mechanics, in supplement to translating a large number of works from Greek to Arabic. Later, he was patronised by the Abbasid Caliph al-M’utadid. After a long career of scholarship, Thabit past away at Baghdad in 901 C.E. (more…)


    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu Yousuf Yaqub Ibn Ishaq al-Kindi was born at Kufa around 800 C.E. His father was an authorized of Haroon al-Rashid. Al-Kindi was a up to date of al-Mamun, al-Mu’tasim and al-Mutawakkil and flourished mostly at Baghdad. He vas formally engaged by Mutawakkil as a calligrapher. On account of his philosophical views, Mutawakkil was antagonise with him and confiscated all his books. These were, although, returned later on. He died in 873 C.E. during the reign of al-M’utamid. (more…)


    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Abu Abdullah Mohammad Ibn Musa al-Khawarizmi was born at Khawarizm (Kheva), south of Aral sea. Very little is renowned about his early life, except for the detail that his parents had migrated to a location south of Baghdad. The exact designated days of his birth and death are furthermore not known, but it is established that he flourished under Al- Mamun at Baghdad through 813-833 and likely past away round 840 C.E. (more…)

    JABIR IBN HAIYAN (Died 803 C.E.)

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    abir Ibn Haiyan, the alchemist Geber of the Middie Ages, is usually renowned as the dad of chemistry. Abu Musa Jabir Ibn Hayyan, occasionally called al-Harrani and al-Sufi, was the son of the druggist (Attar). The accurate designated day of his birth is the subject of some consideration, but it is established that he practiced medicine and alchemy in Kufa around 776 C.E. He is reported to have investigated under Imam Ja’far Sadiq and the Ummayed prince Khalid Ibn Yazid. In his early days, he performed surgery and was under the patronage of the Barmaki Vizir during the Abbssid Caliphate of Haroon al-Rashid. He distributed some of the effects of the downfall of the Barmakis and was put under dwelling arrest in Kufa, where he past away in 803 C.E. (more…)

    The Physics of The Day of Judgement

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    The conviction that humankind will climb from the grave, a fundamental part of the three Abrahamic religions Islam, Christianity, and Judaism, is not simply a myth or impractical thinking yet is dependent upon true investigative standards. Ascending from the grave and returning full of vibrancy can happen basically with the inversion of time. (more…)

    Embriology in Qur’an

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    Articulations implying human propagation and advancement are scattered all through the Qur’an. It is just as of late that the deductive significance of some of these verses has been acknowledged completely. The long postpone in translating these verses rightly came about basically from off base interpretations and discourses and from an absence of attentiveness to logical learning. (more…)

    Expansion of universe

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    The development of the Universe is a standout amongst the most encroaching findings of current science. Today it is a solidly made thought and the main open deliberation bases on the way this is occurring. (more…)

    A bit of miracles

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    The investigation of cutting edge cosmology, observational and speculative, plainly demonstrates that, at one focus in time, the entire universe was just a billow of “smoke” (i.e. an obscure remarkably thick and blazing vaporous organization). This is one of the undisputed standards of standard up to date cosmology. Researchers now can watch new stars framing out of the leftovers of that ‘smoke’. The enlightening stars we see during the evening were, about as was the entire universe, in that “smoke” material. God said in the Quran: (more…)

    Evolution, creation or both ?

    Tuesday, June 4th, 2013

    For the Muslim there is no need for partition between religion and science. It is grasped from the Quran, uncovered over 1,400 years prior, that there is both; “Creation” and “Evolution.” And in both cases, it is just Allah who has the ability to do all things.” actually, it was the Muslim researchers, more than 1,000 years back, who set the stage for the progression of studying, innovation and teaches in science that we know today. (more…)

    A Sine On the Road to Makkah

    Monday, June 3rd, 2013

    Turn then thy face towards the Sacred Mosque: wherever ye are, turn your faces towards it… (Qur’an 2: 144)

    For centuries, Muslims all over the world have obeyed this command from the Koran, facing Mecca five times a day for prayer. But for a Muslim who is thousands of miles from Mecca, finding the right direction to pray—the qibla, or “sacred direction”—is not so easy. It has even been a source of controversy. Some of the mosques in Cairo reflect two different qibla values at 10 degrees from each other, with the outside walls aligned to one and the inside walls to the other. In North America, some Muslims pray to the northeast, in the direction of the great-circle route (the shortest path along the planet’s surface) to Mecca, whereas others pray to the southeast. (more…)

    ceo film “The Signs” – znaci

    Thursday, July 12th, 2012

    The Divine Book 10/10 (Eng. sa prevodom)

    Saturday, June 9th, 2012

    The Wake Up Project is a website & a movement, created to give each of you the opportunity to make your voice heard. Together we can all influence positive and uniting change. Our team is lead by a group of talented and aspiring directors, media developers, animators, composers, internet moderators, and network and community leaders, committed to use their talents towards our constructive goals and objectives.

    The Divine Book 9/10 (Eng. sa prevodom)

    Saturday, June 9th, 2012

    The Wake Up Project is a website & a movement, created to give each of you the opportunity to make your voice heard. Together we can all influence positive and uniting change. Our team is lead by a group of talented and aspiring directors, media developers, animators, composers, internet moderators, and network and community leaders, committed to use their talents towards our constructive goals and objectives.

    The Divine Book 8/10 (Eng. sa prevodom)

    Saturday, June 9th, 2012

    The Wake Up Project is a website & a movement, created to give each of you the opportunity to make your voice heard. Together we can all influence positive and uniting change. Our team is lead by a group of talented and aspiring directors, media developers, animators, composers, internet moderators, and network and community leaders, committed to use their talents towards our constructive goals and objectives.

    The Divine Book 7/10 (Eng. sa prevodom)

    Saturday, June 9th, 2012

    The Wake Up Project is a website & a movement, created to give each of you the opportunity to make your voice heard. Together we can all influence positive and uniting change. Our team is lead by a group of talented and aspiring directors, media developers, animators, composers, internet moderators, and network and community leaders, committed to use their talents towards our constructive goals and objectives.

    The Divine Book 6/10 (Eng. sa prevodom)

    Saturday, June 9th, 2012

    The Wake Up Project is a website & a movement, created to give each of you the opportunity to make your voice heard. Together we can all influence positive and uniting change. Our team is lead by a group of talented and aspiring directors, media developers, animators, composers, internet moderators, and network and community leaders, committed to use their talents towards our constructive goals and objectives.

    The Divine Book 5/10 (Eng. sa prevodom)

    Saturday, June 9th, 2012

    The Wake Up Project is a website & a movement, created to give each of you the opportunity to make your voice heard. Together we can all influence positive and uniting change. Our team is lead by a group of talented and aspiring directors, media developers, animators, composers, internet moderators, and network and community leaders, committed to use their talents towards our constructive goals and objectives.

    The Divine Book 4/10 (Eng. sa prevodom)

    Saturday, June 9th, 2012

    The Wake Up Project is a website & a movement, created to give each of you the opportunity to make your voice heard. Together we can all influence positive and uniting change. Our team is lead by a group of talented and aspiring directors, media developers, animators, composers, internet moderators, and network and community leaders, committed to use their talents towards our constructive goals and objectives.

    The Divine Book 3/10 (Eng. sa prevodom)

    Saturday, June 9th, 2012

    The Wake Up Project is a website & a movement, created to give each of you the opportunity to make your voice heard. Together we can all influence positive and uniting change. Our team is lead by a group of talented and aspiring directors, media developers, animators, composers, internet moderators, and network and community leaders, committed to use their talents towards our constructive goals and objectives.

    The Divine Book 2/10 (Eng. sa prevodom)

    Saturday, June 9th, 2012

    The Wake Up Project is a website & a movement, created to give each of you the opportunity to make your voice heard. Together we can all influence positive and uniting change. Our team is lead by a group of talented and aspiring directors, media developers, animators, composers, internet moderators, and network and community leaders, committed to use their talents towards our constructive goals and objectives.

    The Divine Book 1/10 (Eng. sa prevodom)

    Saturday, June 9th, 2012

    The Wake Up Project is a website & a movement, created to give each of you the opportunity to make your voice heard. Together we can all influence positive and uniting change. Our team is lead by a group of talented and aspiring directors, media developers, animators, composers, internet moderators, and network and community leaders, committed to use their talents towards our constructive goals and objectives.

    Odgovori koje trazimo

    Monday, May 28th, 2012

    Veoma interesantan video, u njemu se mogu naci neki odgovori koje mnogi od nas traze ceo zivot…
    Yusuf Estes, gostovanje na hriscanskoj televiziji

    Zlatna sredina zemlje

    Tuesday, November 15th, 2011

    Yusuf Estes, hriscanski svestenik…

    Saturday, November 5th, 2011

    My own personal story begins on the Texas/Mexican border in December of 1990. I was born a white, Anglo-Saxon Protestant and at that time I was working very actively toward preaching “Born Again” Christianity to anyone and everyone that would listen. I was definitely NOT LOOKING FOR ISLAM. In fact, religious leaders of Christianity and Judaism would have us believe, that Islam is a cult of some kind with the followers worshipping a black box in the desert and kissing the ground five times a day. Additionally, we have been programmed by the media to classify most Muslims as “terrorists,” “highjackers” and “kidnappers.” So why would anyone even look at Islam???

    Biblija me dovela do islama

    Wednesday, October 19th, 2011