ABU RAIHAN AL-BIRUNI (973–1048 C.E.)

Abu Raihan Mohammad Ibn Ahmad al-Biruni was one of the well-known numbers associated with the court of King Mahmood Ghaznawi, who was one of the well known Muslim kings of the 11th years C.E. Al-Biruni was a versatile scholar and scientist who had identical facility in physics, metaphysics, numbers, geography and annals. Born in the town of Kheva near “Ural” in 973 C.E., he was a up to date of the well-known physician Ibn Sina. At an early age, the good reputation of his scholarship went round and when Sultan Mahmood Ghaznawi conquered his homeland, he took al-Biruni along with him in his journeys to India several times and thus he had the opportunity to journey all over India during a period of 20 years. He discovered Hindu philosophy, numbers, geography and belief from the Pundits to who he educated Greek and Arabic science and beliefs. He past away in 1048 C.E. at the age of 75, after having spent 40 years in therefore gathering knowledge and making his own initial assistance to it.

He recorded facts of his travels through India in his well-known book Kitab al-Hind which presents a graphic account of the historical and social conditions of the sub-continent. At the end of this publication he makes a mention of having translated two Sanskrit books into Arabic, one called Sakaya, which deals with the creation of things and their kinds, and the second, Patanjal considering with what happens after the essence leaves the body. His descriptions of India were so entire that even the Aein-i-Akbari in writing by Abu-al- Fadal throughout the reign of Akbar, 600 years later, is obliged a large deal to al-Biruni’s publication. He discerned that the Indus valley must be considered as an ancient ocean basin topped up up with alluvials.

On his return from India, al-Biruni composed his well known book Qanun-i Masoodi (al-Qanun al-Masudi, fi al-Hai’a wa al-Nujum), which he dedicated to Sultan Masood. The publication talks about some theorems of astronomy, trigonometry, solar, lunar, and planetary motions and relation topics. In another well-known publication al-Athar al-Baqia, he has tried a attached account of ancient annals of countries and the associated geographical knowledge. In this publication, he has considered the rotation of the soil and has granted correct values of latitudes and longitudes of various locations. He has furthermore made substantial assistance to some facets of physical and financial geography in this book.

His other scientific assistance include the accurate determination of the densities of 18 distinct pebbles. He furthermore composed the Kitab-al-Saidana, which is an comprehensive materia medica that blends the then existing Arabic knowledge on the subject with the Indian surgery. His publication the Kitab-al-Jamahir agreements with the properties of various precious stones. He was furthermore an astrologer and is reputed to have astonished persons by the accuracy of his propositions. He gave a clear account of Hindu numbers, elaborating the principle of place. Summation of a geometric progression appropos of the chess game commanded to the number:

1616° – 1 = 18,446,744,073,709,551,619.

He developed a procedure for trisection of bend and other problems which will not be solved with a leader and a compass alone. Al-Biruni considered, centuries before the rest of the world, the question whether the earth rotates round its axis or not. He was the first to undertake trials associated to astronomical phenomena. His scientific method, taken together with that of other Muslim scientists, such as Ibn al-Haitham, prepared down the early base of up to date research. He ascertained that as compared with the pace of sound the pace of light is immense. He clarified the employed of natural jumps and artesian wells by the hydrostatic principle of broadcasting vessels. His investigations included description of diverse monstrosities, encompassing that renowned as “Siamese” twins. He observed that blossoms have 3,4,5,6, or 18 petals, but not ever 7 or 9.

He composed a number of books and treatises. Apart from Kitab-al- Hind (History and Geography of India), al-Qanun al-Masudi (Astro- nomy, Trigonometry), al-Athar al-Baqia (Ancient History and Geography), Kitab al-Saidana (Materia Medica) and Kitab al-Jawahir (Precious pebbles) as cited overhead, his publication al-Tafhim-li-Awail Sina’at al-Tanjim gives a abstract of numbers and astronomy.

He has been considered as one of the very utmost researchers of Islam, and, all advised, one of the utmost of all times. His critical spirit, love of reality, and technical approach were combined with a sense of toleration. His enthusiasm for knowledge may be judged from his assertion that the phrase Allah is Omniscient does not justify ignorance.

Kratka pojašnjenja : "Islam je sastavljen od pet stvari: šehadeta i svjedočenja da nema drugog boga osim Allaha – la ilahe illalah, i da je Muhammed Allahov Poslanik – Muhammedun Resulullah, od klanjanja namaza, davanja zekata, obavljanja hadždža i posta mjeseca ramazana!". Klanjanje namaza, Namaz - molitva Allahu dž.š. Zekjat - 2.5% od imovine koja se ne koristi (zlato, novac, nekretnine) koju svaki Musliman izdvaja godišnje za pomoć siromašnima. Hadždž - vjerski obred koji vrši onaj ko može najmanje jednom u životu. Post - proces čuvanja tijela od grijeha, vode i hrane tokom mjeseca Ramazana. Ramazan - mjesec u Islamskom kalendaru u kome je početo objavljivanje Kur'an-a. Islamski kalendar se mjeri Mjesečevom-Lunarnom godinom. Hadis- predanje koje se prenosi od poslanika Muhameda s.a.w.s. Buhari, Muslim dva najpoznatija verodostojna sakupljača i objavljivača Hadisa. Za više pročitajte : šta je islam