ABU ABDULLAH AL-BATTANI (868–929 C.E.)

Abu Abdallah Muhammad Ibn Jabir Ibn Sinan al-Battani al-Harrani was born round 858 C.E. in Harran, and according to one account, in Battan, a State of Harran. Battani was first educated by his father Jabir Ibn San’an al-Battani, who was also a well-known researcher. He then moved to Raqqa, situated on the bank of the Euphrates, where he obtained advanced learning and subsequent on flourished as a scholar. At the beginning of the 9th century, he migrated to Samarra, where he worked till the end of his life in 929 C.E. He was of Sabian source, but was himself a Muslim.

Battani was a well known astronomer, mathematician and astrologer. He has been held as one of the utmost astronomists of Islam. He is to blame for a number of important discoveries in astronomy, which was the outcome of a long vocation of 42 years of study beginning at Raqqa when he was juvenile. His well-known discovery is the amazingly unquestionable conclusion of the solar year as being 365 days, 5 hours, 46 minutes and 24 seconds, which is very close to the newest approximates. He discovered that the longitude of the sun’s apogee had expanded by 16° , 47′ since Ptolemy. This inferred the important breakthrough of the shift of the solar apsides and of a slow variety in the formula of time. He did not believe in the trepidation of the equinoxes, whereas Copernicus held it.

Al-Battani very resolute with amazing correctness the obliquity of the ecliptic, the length of the times of the year and the factual and signify orbit of the sun.

He verified, in pointed compare to Ptolemy, the variety of the clear-cut angular diameter of the sun and the possibility of annular eclipses. He rectified some orbits of the moon and the planets and propounded a new and very ingenious idea to determine the situation of visibility of the new moon. His excellent facts of lunar and solar eclipses were utilised by Dunthorne in 1749 to work out the secular acceleration of shift of the moon. He also supplied very tidy answers by means of orthographic projection for some troubles of spherical trigonometry.

In mathematics, he was the first to restore the use of Greek chords by sines, with a clear understanding of their superiority.

He furthermore evolved the notion of cotangent and furnished their table in qualifications.

He wrote a number of publications on astronomy and trigonometry. His most well known book was his astronomical treatise with tables, which was converted into Latin in the 12th century and flourished as De scienta stellerum — De numeris stellerum et motibus. An vintage transformation of this is accessible of the Vatican. His Zij was, in fact, more unquestionable than all other ones in writing by that time.

His treatise on astronomy was exceedingly influential in Europe till the Renaissance, with transformations available in several dialects. His initial discoveries both in astronomy and trigonometry were of large outcome in the development of these sciences.

Kratka pojašnjenja : "Islam je sastavljen od pet stvari: šehadeta i svjedočenja da nema drugog boga osim Allaha – la ilahe illalah, i da je Muhammed Allahov Poslanik – Muhammedun Resulullah, od klanjanja namaza, davanja zekata, obavljanja hadždža i posta mjeseca ramazana!". Klanjanje namaza, Namaz - molitva Allahu dž.š. Zekjat - 2.5% od imovine koja se ne koristi (zlato, novac, nekretnine) koju svaki Musliman izdvaja godišnje za pomoć siromašnima. Hadždž - vjerski obred koji vrši onaj ko može najmanje jednom u životu. Post - proces čuvanja tijela od grijeha, vode i hrane tokom mjeseca Ramazana. Ramazan - mjesec u Islamskom kalendaru u kome je početo objavljivanje Kur'an-a. Islamski kalendar se mjeri Mjesečevom-Lunarnom godinom. Hadis- predanje koje se prenosi od poslanika Muhameda s.a.w.s. Buhari, Muslim dva najpoznatija verodostojna sakupljača i objavljivača Hadisa. Za više pročitajte : šta je islam